CCAMLR adopted a new conservation measure in 2007 (CM 22-06) to ensure that significant adverse impacts of bottom fishing gear on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) are avoided. Due to the high levels of uncertainty surrounding both the evidence of VME presence and the consequences of interaction with different types of gear, a risk management framework is proposed, similar to that which has been used successfully by IMAF to minimise the effects of longline fishing mortality on seabirds. The aim of this risk management is to avoid significant adverse impacts on VMEs from bottom fishing activities. The framework consists of four steps: (1). Risk analysis of current and proposed fishing activities; evidence of potential VMEs; scale of interactions between fishing activities and VMEs; impact of interactions on VMEs; and recovery potential of VMEs. (2) Risk evaluation. Combine information on likelihood and consequences of interactions of bottom fishing gear with VMEs and associated uncertainties from risk analysis to produce risk metrics. (3) Risk elimination or mitigation. Unacceptable levels of risk from bottom fishing activities to VMEs must be eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels through the use of management measures including, inter alia, closed areas around identified VMEs, open and closed management areas, bycatch limits for VME-forming organisms, gear modification or spatial distribution of fishing effort. (4). Review. All of the above steps should be reviewed regularly to ensure that all relevant or new information has been included, appropriate scientific research and data collection plans are in plan and that risk mitigation measures are successful in their implementation.