CCAMLR has established a comprehensive set of conservation measures to prevent significant adverse effects of fishing on vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). The United States undertook a spatial analysis to examine whether bottom longline fishing activities took place within VME Risk Areas and in relevant VMEs as a step toward reviewing the effectiveness of relevant conservation measures in protecting VMEs from significant adverse impacts. We found several instances between 2011 and 2017 where longline fishing gear was set inside a VME Risk Area. These findings raise questions about the level of compliance with CCAMLR’s scheme to protect VMEs and VME Risk Areas from bottom fishing impacts. As a result, the United States wishes to provide recommendations increasing the effectiveness of measures to protect VMEs from significant adverse impacts.