The USSR has fished in the Atlantic Sector of the Antarctic for three living marine resources: whales, krill and fish. In order to provide the fisheries with rational database the AtlantNIRO vessels conducted fishery and scientific studies. Investigations on whales were commenced in 1960. There were collected a big set of statistical and biological data on embryos growth rate of sperm whales, pigmy blue whales, southern baleen whales, physiological structure of the females share in the aggregations of various whale species, migrations etc. which is widely used for correct stocks evaluation and population dynamics. Using information collected by whalers, the world krill fishery was commenced by the AtlantNIRO vessel “Muxun” in 1961. From 1961 to 1970 eight scientific research and fishery voyages to the ASA were undertaken, from 1971 to 1980 – 25 voyages, from 1981 to 1989 – 22 voyages. For all the period of studies in the ASA an enormous primary database was collected by AtlantNIRO and VNIRO. Investigations of Antarctic fish were started by RV "Academik Knipovitch" in 1967. The main purpose of the researches was ecology of the commercially important species, stock and recruitment assessment and search for the new resources. Since 1960 AtlantNIRO’s contributions in the study of all three resources: whales, krill and fish, were very important, unique and may be used for oceanic ecosystem better understanding and protection and for planning and development of sustainable fisheries as well.