The horizontal and vertical distribution and population structure of euphausiids in the Ross Sea and its adjacent waters were investigated during the summers of 2004/2005 using stratified towed samples. Nine species of euphausiids occurred in the survey area. Among them, Euphausia triacantha was dominant in biomass north of the southern boundary of the Antarctic circumpolar current (SB). Thysanoessa spp. was widely distributed north of the continental slope, while E. superba was distributed from the SB to the slope, where it showed the highest biomass. Juvenile E. superba was distributed offshore near the SB and remained at the surface, but gravid females were dominant in the slope and mainly occurred in the middle layers (400–600 m). Adult and juvenile E. crystallorophias were found at 200–300 m in the colder water of the continental shelf. In general, the peak biomass of euphausiids was found in the mid layers of the Ross Sea area. The life span and the number of spawns for major species are also discussed.