Conservation Measure 22-07 (2008) requires vessels fishing in the Ross Sea region (and most areas south of 60 °S) to monitor longline bycatch for VME indicator organisms. Observers classified invertebrate bycatch using new protocols and a new VME taxa classification guide, and retained these samples for subsequent onshore classification by taxonomists. Comparison of the observer’s classification versus the taxonomist’s classification showed that for most groups, the observer classifications were reasonably accurate. Classification of two groups requires further development of training materials; stylasterids and gorgonians. Errors in other groups indicated the observers did not always record all the VME taxa retained as samples, as some live on other taxa (e.g. Anemones on stylasterids). Relatively large differences between vessels in how VME taxa bycatch were recorded are noted, along with suggested improvements. Observers very rarely classified non-VME taxa as VME taxa. Some errors and confusion in terminology in how data were recorded in logbooks were noted and alternatives described. Updates to the VME taxa classification guide, and specific observer training, should permit a robust dataset on the taxonomic composition and distribution of VME taxa in the Ross Sea region and elsewhere in the CCAMLR Area.