A conservative calculation of the number of albatrosses killed annually on Japanese longlines in southern oceans is 44, 000. The actual figure could be double and is sufficiently high to substantiate claims that serious declines in albatross populations are due to this fishing activity. Albatrosses have an economic impact on longline fisheries with annual losses to the southern bluefin tuna fishery alone exceeding $A7 million. If all fish species and the total longlining effort were considered, it would be many millions of dollars greater. Apart from a concern for albatrosses, Japan's longline fishermen would also benefit by using the solutions offered. It is suggested that a 70% reduction in the problem is possible and that an overall reduction in excess 0f 90 % could be achieved. Further monitoring is essential.