The study of diseases in wild penguins is important for the identification of endemic diseases and the detection of exotic diseases should these occur. It is also important in the understanding of the degree to which disease may be expected to influence the results of biological studies. Results may be confounded and interpretation made difficult by both the transient and long term presence of disease particularly if it is at the sub clinical level. We present here a compilation of diseases and parasites recorded for all species of penguins present both in the wild and in captivity. Normal values for blood biochemistry and haematology are given as an aid to the identification of illness in penguins.
Published in: Korean Journal of Polar Research, 4(2): 79-96 (1993)