Existing area-based conservation and management measures available under CCAMLR provide a broad conservation and management framework under which the entire CCAMLR Area could be considered to have a level of protection similar to an IUCN Category IV (Habitat/Species Management) protected area. Category IV areas are defined as “subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species”. Recent discussion within CCAMLR forums has focused on the need for further protection to be afforded to inter alia, representative, vulnerable or scientific areas, and it has been noted that this type of protected area may have considerable potential for furthering CCAMLR’s objectives. Such additional protection might be established using CCAMLR’s existing provisions for closed areas and special areas for protection or scientific study. This would complement the existing area-based management system, and thus achieve additional benefits for fisheries and biodiversity conservation on an ecosystems basis.