Antarctic krill has been studied for many decades, but we are still long way from understanding their biology to be able to make reliable predictions about the reaction of their populations to environmental change. This is partly due to certain difficulties in relation to logistics, operations and survey design associated with scientific surveys that have been obstacles for us to better understand krill biology. The krill fishery is the largest fishery in the Southern Ocean, continuously operating since early 1970s. Recent studies revealed its potential to be used as a unique source for scientific discussions to understand krill biology. In this paper, after a brief overview of krill fishery operation and krill biology, we examine how current data collection through the fishery operation could contribute to a greater understanding of krill biology, and then suggest future priorities for fisheries-related research in relation to recent changes in the Southern Ocean environment.