Understanding the demographics of Antarctic krill over large scales may be complicated by regional differences in the 11 processes that govern population structure. The influence of regional differences in growth and mortality on population size 12 structure was examined using data on the length–frequency distribution of krill in the Scotia Sea using samples from the South 13 Shetland Islands and South Georgia collected annually from 1991 to 2000. A correction function, which took account of the 14 higher growth rate at South Georgia, produced a consistent similarity in the position of the modal size classes that was not present 15 in the raw data. Optimising the mortality rate, to minimise the differences in the growth corrected length–frequency distribution, 16 suggested a higher mortality rate at South Georgia that the South Shetlands. The intra-specific variations in growth and mortality 17 rates are consistent with published values and with other Euphausiids species. Having accounted for the demographic plasticity, it 18 is apparent that strong recruitment of the smallest size class of krill is represented in both populations simultaneously. It appears 19 that first-year krill are advected into different regions of the Scotia Sea where the resultant population size structure is determined 20 by regional differences in growth and mortality. The majority of the commercial harvest of krill in the Antarctic occurs in a 21 relatively small number of regional fisheries within the Scotia Sea and is managed using population models based on a single set 22 of demographic parameters. Where substantial differences in these parameters exist between fishing areas, the calculation of 23 catch limits should take these differences into account.