Scientific data are the basis of decision-making in CCAMLR. Over the years, CCAMLR members have carried out continuous research and monitoring on key components of Antarctic living resources and ecosystems. Findings all over the world are published in journals of multiple languages. To facilitate the CCAMLR’s management on the basis of science, this paper attempts to obtain, summarize and update the baseline data of emperor penguins and Adelie penguins in the Ross Sea region, as an example, through systematic collection and analysis of the data from the international literature in the past decades, management plans of the relevant Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPA) and MAPPPD’s website, with the aim to establish an comprehensive knowledge on the penguins in this region. The paper further explores the possible reasons and trends of the penguin population fluctuations so that to provide guidance for future research.