Article II has periodically been the subject of discussion in the Commission. As CCAMLR moves through its fourth decade of service as a vital part of the Antarctic Treaty system, the delegations of United States and Australia considered it was important to recall the development of the Convention and to articulate our views on what “conservation” means for CCAMLR. At its core, this involves taking a close look at Article II of the Convention to see how the term is applied and to consider its intended interpretation, as well as revisiting the background and context of the Convention. This examination consistently emphasizes that the central object and purpose of the Convention is conservation. It is clear to our delegations that the correct way to think about “conservation” in CCAMLR is that “conservation” is the Convention’s singular objective, and that any rational use must be consistent with that objective.