This document summarises French observations of illegal fishing for the past year and reports on implementation of the CCAMLR Inspection System. It includes an analysis of developments in this domain and proposes ways in which the fight against illegal fishing can be stepped up. The geographical area covered in this study comprises statistical Subarea 58.6 and Divisions 58.5.1 and 58.5.2, including the Crozet, Kerguelen and Heard and McDonald EEZs respectively, and Divisions 58.4.3 and 58.4.4, i.e. international waters including fishable depths on Banzare, Elan, Lena and Ob Banks. The surveillance system deployed by France in the French Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) has been operational throughout the whole year. It has proved to be effective, in that there is no longer any sign of IUU fishing in the EEZs. The resource, which was previously so badly affected in the Kerguelen and Crozet EEZs, is now safeguarded. The slight possibility that brief incursions might have taken place is too doubtful to enable any IUU removals to be reported to have taken place in the Crozet and Kerguelen EEZs. However, IUU fishing continues to make its presence felt in the CCAMLR Area in international waters. Although there has been a definite decline in sightings in winter 2008, an increase has nevertheless been observed during the first half of 2009. This season, the IUU fleet has again focused on BANZARE and Elan Banks (Statistical Division 58.4.3). Some IUU activity has, however, been observed on the more scattered seamounts (Ob and Lena), and sometimes at the boundary of the Kerguelen and Heard EEZs (Lameyde Ridge, Galienni Spur, Williams Seamount) All IUU vessels observed seemed to be using gillnets. A number of them stated that some of their crew members, including captains and fishing masters, were nationals of CCAMLR Member countries. A significant step forward in tactics aimed at deterring illicit operations has however been made this season through the completion of a CCAMLR inspection on board an NCP-IUU vessel with the agreement of the Flag State, and the recovery of illicit fishing gear.