Acceptance and Approval
Acceptance and approval are legal terms associated with the formal commitment to abide by the obligations in a treaty or convention.
Until ratification, acceptance or approval, a State or regional economic integration organisation has not formally expressed its consent to be bound by a treaty.
An acceding State is a Contracting Party bound by the provisions of the CAMLR Convention but is not a CCAMLR Member.
Accession is a legal term associated with the formal commitment of a State or regional economic integration organisation to signify its agreement to be legally bound by the terms of a treaty. It has the same legal effect as ratification, but is not preceded by an act of signature.
Antarctic Treaty System
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The Treaty, which entered into force in 1961 and currently has 49 signatory nations, sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation and bans military activity on that continent. The Treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, since September 2004.
The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, the Convention, is an international treaty that was adopted at the Conference on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources which met at Canberra, Australia, 7–20 May 1980. The Convention is part of the Antarctic Treaty System and aims to preserve marine life and environmental integrity in and near Antarctica.
CCAMLR (The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources)
CCAMLR includes all States or regional economic integration organisations which have ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to the 1982 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (the CAMLR Convention).
Members have signed and either ratified, approved or accepted the CAMLR Convention. They are involved in scientific research and/or fishing subject to CCAMLR conservation measures. Only Members contribute to the CCAMLR budget and participate in decision-making. Members include the European Union.
Catch Documentation Scheme (CDS)
In accordance with Conservation Measure 10-05 CCAMLR has implemented a Catch Documentation Scheme (CDS) for Dissostichus spp. The CDS was developed to distinguish between legal and illegal product and tracks toothfish from the point of landing through the trade cycle. In combination with other conservation measures CDS has had a major impact on the legal trade of toothfish and reduced the scope for trade in illegally caught product.
The Contracting Parties of CCAMLR include Members and Acceding States.
Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties
When States not formally associated with the CAMLR Convention cooperate with CCAMLR, these States are referred to as Cooperating non-Contracting Parties. For example, States implementing the Catch Document Scheme to track the chain of custody of Dissostichus species are Cooperating non-Contracting Parties.
States not formally associated with the CAMLR Convention are referred to as non-Contracting Parties.
Non-Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties
When States not formally associated with the CAMLR Convention do not cooperate with CCAMLR, these States are referred to as non-Cooperating non-Contracting Parties. For example, where States including port States are identified as being involved in toothfish trade, these States are referred to as non-Cooperating non-Contracting Parties if they do not cooperate with the Catch Documentation Scheme (CDS). CCAMLR endeavours to encourage these States to cooperate with the implementation of the CDS.
Ratification is a legal term associated with the formal commitment to abide by the obligations of a treaty or convention.
Ratification is the formal consent of a State to be bound by a treaty. Generally, its national legislative body, such as a parliament, needs to approve international agreements prior to ratification. This process allows a State to transform its international obligations into national legislation that can then be implemented.
On ratification, that State or regional economic integration organisation becomes a Contracting Party.
Regional Economic Integration Organisations
Sovereign States can establish regional economic integration organisations to which they, as member States, then transfer competence in respect of matters governed by the establishing treaty or convention. An example of a regional economic integration organisation is the European Union.
Signature is a legal term associated with the formal commitment to abide by the obligations of a treaty or convention.
When a State or regional economic integration organisation signs a treaty, the signature is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval and the State is obliged to refrain from action that undermines the objectives of that treaty.
States Party to the CAMLR Convention but not Members
Acceding States are not CCAMLR Members but have formally agreed to be bound by the provisions of the CAMLR Convention. They have demonstrated an interest in scientific research or harvesting activities but do not participate in decisions nor contribute to the annual budget of CCAMLR.